Objectives:
To understand the pattern of Human-Leopard conflict and fieldwork in some conflicted areas. Start conservation and awareness activities in different villages.

Methodology:
Data collected in the form of graphical presentation and analytical solutions, about wildlife and human conflict. Various software and applications were used in order to make maps and record data. Census of Leopards and the number of livestock attack cases under human leopard conflict, provided in the form of graphs and tables by the forest department were also taken into consideration.

Trap cameras, Cameras, and Night vision cameras were used for documentation of scat, footprint identification, nail scratches identifications, kill record proofs, etc. were also documented. There were programs conducted in the villages about conservation and awareness.

Opinions and Strategies
The common people cannot operate wildlife by their own rules and regulations. There are various issues regarding the thought process of the villagers involving the rescue of a leopard, regarding this there are various controls and measures which have to be considered and are of utmost importance.

Issues involve:

  • Domestic cattle of the villagers which they keep with them in their open courtyard are a threat, which also attracts the wild carnivorous animals.
  • There is no proper dump yard for the disposal of these dead animals.
  • The crop harvesting is done in groups by surrounding the whole farmland which increases the risk of a leopard attack in case the animal is in the middle of the farm.
  • The non-vegetarian food waste is thrown out in the open which also attracts wild animals which is a secondary source of their livestock.
  • The leopard if in case enters the villages, the residents instead of informing the authorities take actions themselves, which is a threat to the leopard and also possesses a fatal threat to the villagers.
  • Another backdrop is that leopards are not religiously important to the villagers as lions and tigers, which makes leopard an unwanted intruder in the eyes of the villagers.

Measures to be taken:

  • Villagers are not to keep any domestic cattle or pets in the house which attracts the leopards. Instead, a special shelter for the cattle is to be made with protective measures.
  • Dump yard for the dead animals is to be made away from the villages which act as a source of livestock for the leopard and other animals such as hyenas.
  • Villagers before harvesting the crops should sound an alarm to make the leopards aware of human presence, which may avoid fatal incidents of Human-Leopard conflicts.
  • Crops should be harvested from one side instead of grouping up around the farm which minimizes the risk of confronting a leopard.
  • Villagers should be educated about leaving the leopard alone even if it enters the village territory and not take the matters in their own hand and inform the representative forest authorities.
  • Proper cages need to be set up to carry out safe rescue operations.
  • Another method is to increase the importance of the leopard religiously by associating it with various gods, which in turn helps the villagers keep a safe distance from the leopards rather than creating a nuisance when a leopard is seen.
  • Villagers should travel in pairs or in groups which also avoids the leopard from getting in front of the people.
  • Villagers should carry torches and talk loudly in the evenings and at nights which is a common method to distract lions and tigers and can simultaneously be applied on leopards.
  • Proper lighting and fencing should be provided around the villages and the villagers especially infants should avoid sleeping in the open.
  • Domestic dog populations should be increased which is a good alarm for the leopards.